Audio Khutba: The Keys to Mental and Emotional Health from The Quran and the Sunna, Part Two, by Imam Luqman Ahmad

mental healthMental and emotional wellbeing are two important elements necessary for one’s Islam to be healthy and morally functional. Many times, mental and emotional imbalances are spiritual ailments and the Quran and the sunna are full of directives for how to achieve mental and emotional health. Anger, depression, anxiety, paranoia, and psychopathic behavior can all be factors in moral dysfunction. To learn about the clinical solution, visit your health professional. To hear about the Islamic solution, click on the link to this khutba.

001_A_005_abulaith_The keys to psychological and emotional health part two_2012_12_28

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A guide for Muslim converts: How to give your children a strong moral foundation, by Shaykh Abu Laith Luqman Ahmad

Me and MaryamI cannot stress enough beloveds, the importance of strong families. Never neglect family ties, regardless of what religion family members have. Don’t even play around with it when it comes to strengthening and preserving the family. “O Mankind! Fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allaah, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allaah is ever, over you, an Observer”[1].When communities fall short, become fragmented, or fail, the religion can be preserved on the family by holding onto and passing down the values and teachings of faith to the next generation. and the next after that.  When you invest in the family, what you end up with, in sha Allah is, generation after generation of eemaan. You can’t buy that at a halal store, you can’t download it from the internet, and you can’t mix it up in a mixing bowl. You have to strive for it, pray for it and make it a priority. In order to have strong believing families, you must build your immediate family structure upon belief in Allah and in His oneness (tawheed).

It is important from the very beginning that everyone in your immediate family; your wife, your children, and all other members of your household are aware without a doubt that the reigning law and source of order within your home, is Islam.  With that in mind, you must establish the prescribed prayer with your family, your wife and the children of your household. Your children must see that you bow your head down to Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala. In doing so, they will know that you as parents, are accountable to Him (Allah). If they see that you are accountable to Allah, they will find it easier and more palatable to be accountable to you as parents. If there is no prayer in your home, then it is almost assured that Shaitaan will soon become the imam of your household.

It is the sunna of the Prophet (SAWS) to call yourself a Muslim. Therefore, try not to teach your children to attach themselves to tightly to a sectarian, or strict madhhabi  designation such as, Shaafi’ee, Qaadiri, Tijaani, Tablighi, Salafi Hanbali, Maaliki, or any other designation. Teach them that they are Muslim. Even if you happen to follow a particular school of thought or a tariqa be it Shaafi’ee, or Maaliki, or Shaadhili, or if you ascribe to a group such as Salafi, or a Tablighi, or anything else, do not, and I repeat, do not teach your children that anything represents the totality of Islam, other than Islam.  If you teach them that your group are the only true Muslims, or that if they follow this or that tariqa or madhhab, there Islam will be better than everyone else’s, then you will only confuse and mislead them; as many people are already doing.

The best of the companions of the Prophet (SAWS) loathed sectarianism and ran away from it. They sahaba never called the people to follow anything other than the way of Allah and the way of the Prophet (SAWS). They didn’t call themselves salafi, Shaafi’ee, Qaadiri, or any other designation except Muslims. Don’t be fooled beloved; in today’s global environment, people who raise their children based upon a particular sect are just experimenting; there is no evidence that such a thing has worked. We don’t pray to grandpa in America; that’s someone else’s path. The true religion of Allah will always be Islam and the only one of our ummah who is ma’soom (free of error) is Muhammad Ibn Abdullah, the Last Prophet (SAWS). Teach your children to live according to the Quran and the Sunna beloveds, anything else is just someone else’s experimentation, for which Allah has revealed no authority.

Claiming the religion of Islam as your religion has more depth, longevity, and spiritual potency than any of the other sectarian additions to it. This is because Islam, in its pure form is sanctioned from above seven heavens and is supported by the authority of wahy (divine revelation) .

إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللّهِ الإِسْلاَمُ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ الَّذِينَ أُوْتُواْ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ

The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will):  And the People of the Book did not differ except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account[2].

 The Prophet (SAWS) was, without a doubt, sent to all of mankind, as Allah states:;

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

“Say; O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah”[3]

The Prophet’s way and path of faith (sunna),  is applicable for all Peoples and for all times. However, this or that sheikh, companion, taabi’ee, or imam , were not dispatched to all people as a mercy to mankind. Therefore, the cultural, ritual, and spiritual additions to our religion that are practiced elsewhere in the world, are not necessarily    beneficial for American Muslim converts who wish to practice the religion in its pure, unadulterated form.

Most of the people who have convert to Islam, didn’t sign up for all the polemics, infighting and sectarianism that exists today. They didn’t envision that the ummah would become stagnated because we are too busy arguing and fighting over someone else’s point of view. It’s a shame that people come into Islam out of sincerity to worship Allah alone without partners and are almost immediately met with a litany of groups, scholars and positions that they are pressured to pay homage to, when in reality; people are only commanded to worship Allah Alone, and to make the religion for His sake only.  .

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاء وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَذَلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ

And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to practice regular charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight[4].

The point is, that if you teach your children the truth, (the Quran and the sunna), you don’t have to spend a lot of time teaching them about all the falsehood that they may or may not encounter during their lifetime, or teaching them about all the different sects and ways that people do this or that. There is no end to the amount of falsehood, difference of opinion, deviant and orthodox ideology, and opinions in circulation amongst the Muslims. Of course as things come up, you may comment upon it to your kids, (if neccessary), or explain it to them but in most cases, children will depend upon the parent to simply raise them right and teach them correctly the first time. Their time on earth is limited just like ours, and the more truth they know (from the Kitaab and the Sunna) and the more they are aware of what is important; (prayer, fasting, family bonds, goodness to neighbors, charity, honesty, loyalty, taqwa, kindness, family, the Masjid, brotherhood, and so on), then the more time and energy they can devote to practicing it and preparing for their hereafter. There are so many aspects of deen that children grow up and know nothing about.  Whether it is family issues, moral value issues, character issues, adaab issues, belief issues, fiqh issues, social issues, or simple lifestyle issues upon which Allah and His Messenger have rendered guidance.

The idea is to pass the religion and foundational knowledge of Islam down to your children in a way that will help them to remain firm in their faith, and in their practice of Islam, and not find themselves going from sub-ideology of Islam to another. Ultimately what you want for your family is generational continuity of Islam as a way of life.  Or constantly questioning this and then questioning that, and questioning what they believe, every time something new comes on the scene, like many Muslims are doing today. It’s really a sad situation. When children are put upon firm and true deen from the very beginning, it is likely that they will not be swayed or moved by anything different. Whether it be a different madhhab, or a deviant ideology. You don’t want your children to end up being like the people who spend more time arguing about the deen, than they spend practicing it. Children are born in a state of fitrah, The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Each child is born in a state of fitrah, but his parents make him a Jew or a Christian”.[5]  Muslim parents have the opportunity and are charged with keeping their children upon the straight path that Allah has created them upon; the prophet (SAWS) reported about Allah be He Exalted and Glorified, that He said:  “I created My servants in the right religion, but the devils made them go astray.[6]” Children by their very nature are predisposed to take the path that their parents put them on. When they are exposed by the parents to too many different truths, or too many different religious ideologies, they will not be secure in their faith. Once they become insecure in their faith, they are likely to fall for anything.

Shaykh Abu Laith Luqman Ahmad

Imam Abu Laith Luqman Ahmad, a Philadelphia native, is the son of converts to Islam. He is a writer, a researcher and Imam of the Islamic Society of Folsom, in Northern California. He is a former executive committee member of the North America Imams Federation (NAIF), and the CEO of ‘Mosque Without Borders’, an organization that address Muslim sectarianism. He is also and the author of the new book, “Double Edged Slavery “, a critical and authoritative look at the condition of African American and convert Muslims in the United States, and the book: “The Devil’s Deception of the Modern Day Salafi Sect “, a look at the ideological underpinning of modern Salafist extremism. He blogs at imamluqman.wordpress.com, and can be reached at imamabulaith@yahoo.com.


[1] Quran, 4:1.

[2] Quran, 3:19

[3] Quran, 7:158

[4] Quran, 98:5

[5] Collected by Bukhaari and Muslim.

[6] Collected by Muslim.

The Islamic Ruling Regarding Morals and Ethics on Social Networks, by Shaykh Abu Laith Luqman Ahmad

social networking 2Social networking can be an effective tool for maintaining contact with relatives, giving sincere advice, inviting to Islam, spreading the word of Allah, and disseminating the words of His Prophet (SAWS), as the Prophet has said: “inform about me, even if it’s only one verse.[1] All of these actions mentioned are praiseworthy manifestations of faith if done with the right intention and in the right manner. Millions of Muslims across the world use facebook and other social networking outlets to do these things on a daily basis. Internet networking is the new international meeting place, and it can be a sometimes, spiritually uplifting, engaging, and profitable venue for global interconnection, spreading good, and familiarization of peoples from different backgrounds, cultures, and faiths. Human beings by our nature, are social beings, and social interconnectivity by itself is not prohibited in Islam, as Allah has indeed sanctioned it;

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things)”.[2]What is not sanctioned however is that people connect with one another and engage in behavior in ways that are prohibited by the Quran and the Sunna and that contradict the moral and ethical standards of our faith.

One of the first common casualties of social networking is shame

One of the first casualties of online social networking is modesty (hiyaa).  The Prophet (SAWS) said: “And modesty  is a branch of faith”. When a Muslim loses shame then they have lost a part of their faith. Facebook is a public forum; the words you say and conversations that you have on Facebook and other social media are public. You are willingly stating your views, your positions, your beliefs, and your personal discretions out there for public consumption. Therefore, if you openly report your sins without shame or modesty, then you are telling the world that you are a sinner. Therefore, If you openly and shamelessly backbite, then you are telling the world that you are an open backbiter, and if you glowingly talk about your escapades with your boyfriend or girlfriend, then you are telling the world that you are an open fornicator. You are still accountable for it but you are now deliberately publicizing it. Deliberately publicizing something is called (mujaahara) and mujaahara of sin, is itself a sin, and it shows that you lack modesty.

 Ibn Abbaas said: “Shame and faith are in the same horn, when shame is taken away, the other follows”[3]. And Salmaan al-Faarisee relates: “when Allah wants destruction for a person, he takes shame away (from his heart).  The invisible wall of the internet sometimes lures people into a false sense of anonymity and they become unabashedly immodest.  When people start to lose modesty/shame, their faith as a whole begins to dwindle, and it can continue to where they have no shame at all. This is why the Prophet said: “If you do not feel any shame, then do as you wish[4]. People put out things shamelessly and fool themselves into thinking that since they are behind a computer screen, there are no repercussions for what they do and say, and all they need to do to hide is to turn off their computer. That is a wrong asumption.

The difference between public and private actions in Islam

When you intentionally publicize something to the world, you are making a public statement about yourself, who you are, what you believe, and what you are about. With respect to Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala, is doesn’t matter if what is said is done in private, or done publicly, each is accounted for;

سَوَاء مِّنكُم مَّنْ أَسَرَّ الْقَوْلَ وَمَن جَهَرَ بِهِ وَمَنْ هُوَ مُسْتَخْفٍ بِاللَّيْلِ وَسَارِبٌ بِالنَّهَارِ

It is all alike [to Him] whether any of you conceals his thougt or brings it into the open, and whether he seeks to hide [his evil deeds] under the cover of night or walks [boldly] in the light of day”.[5]

With respect to the public, when you publicize things to people without shame, you give them license to form opinions about you that you, yourself, have confirmed. There is the additional harm of opening yourself up to criticism, recrimination, and ruining your reputation. Facebook is a public forum; the words you say and conversations that you have on Facebook and other social media are public. If you unabashedly lie to the public, then you only confirm to them that you are a liar. If you are unabashedly lewd to the public, then you confirm to them that you are lewd.

Everything on Facebook is recorded

Everything that you put on your facebook page becomes a permanent record that will bear witness for, or against you on the Day of Judgment. The angels that record words and deeds are not intimidated by the internet; and even though you can set your privacy settings to limit access for people, there is no way that a person can shield his or her online actions from them or from Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala. Sometimes people are misled into thinking that since we are sitting comfortably ensconced in our homes out of view from the public; our words and actions online do not fall under any divine jurisdiction and have no spiritual consequence. This could not be farther from the truth; every deed, and every word, is recorded;

And whoever does an atoms weight of good shall see it, and whoever does an atoms weight of bad shall see it”[6]. The angels who record deeds, and words, write down every word whether it is online or offline;

مَا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلَّا لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

[Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it).[7]]

Facebook Fitna

For all its benefit, Facebook like other social networks can be a great source of fitna (trial); an alarming amount of marriages have ended, been weakened or have been threatened by the involvement of one or both spouses in risky facebook activity. People are insulted, maligned and slandered, and in turn, are tempted to return insults, and often do.  Peoples sexual exploits are divulged shamelessly and people regularly report their offline sinful behavior. It is not permissible for a Muslim to use social networking as a means to cheat on one’s spouse, cultivate unlawful relationships, post revealing photographs, spread bedroom secrets, or to uncover the faults of others without just cause. All of the above are prohibited in Islam by agreement of the scholars, and have toxic consequences upon the soul.

Likewise, we shouldn’t use the internet to make fun of people, exhibit bad character, or to backbite and slander one another. Those of you who are looking for spouses should keep in mind that it will only take a few clicks for your potential husband or wife to see the extent of your bad character, in fact the world can see it and all who see it or read it will bear witness to it. Some people have taken it upon themselves to use social media like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Pinterest, to show the worst behavioral qualities that they have to the public. Remember, whatever any one of us puts out on the internet, multiplies and can spread way beyond our control.

How Sins or virtues are multiplied on Facebook

When it comes to good words or good deeds, they are automatically multiplied by at least tenfold; [مَن جَاء بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاء بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلاَ يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ] “He that doeth good shall have ten times as much to his credit: He that doeth evil shall only be recompensed according to his evil: no wrong shall be done unto (any of) them.[8] However, bad words and statements, on the other hand, require more caution; a bad word, bad action or deed under normal circumstances, by itself constitutes only one infraction or sinful act. However, when you take into account the duplicitous nature of internet posting in that information is often re-tweeted, re-posted and forwarded to and read by others, who in turn, repeat the information, a single bad word, false statement, accusation or slander is multiplied exponentially, so one personal attack is not just one personal attack, it can easily become 1,000,000 personal attacks, and one heretical statement becomes 1,000,000 heretical statements. Then it’s all written down and goes on a scale that we will see on the Day of Judgment.

This is why the Prophet (SAWS) said: “A person will say something that angers Allah and not give it any thought, then (that statement) will throw him into the hell-fire a distance of seventy autums[9]. A singular online statement of backbiting, slander, or disbelief, may multiply long after you have logged out of your computer, and become a cause for your own spiritual ruin. May Allah protect us from that.

Good and Bad Precedents

This is the true danger of using bad words, bad adab and bad judgment when posting, liking or commenting on things using the internet, is that since it is a public forum, you increase the likelihood that someone else will follow your example. As in the hadith of Jarir ibn Abdullah, who reported the Prophet (SAWS) as saying; “Whoever sets a good precedent in Islam will have the reward for that and the reward of those who do it after him, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. And whoever sets a bad precedent in Islam will bear the burden of sin for that, and the burden of those who do it after him, without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.[10] It is important for Muslims to be aware of the potential consequences for what they are posting. In the hadith of Abu Hurraira, he said: the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Whoever calls others to guidance will have a reward like that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. And whoever calls others to misguidance will have a burden of sin like that of those who follow it, without it detracting from their burden in the slightest.[11] With respect to the two previously mentioned hadith, Imam Nawawi says; “These two ahaadeeth clearly encourage us to set good precedents and forbid setting bad precedents. The one who sets a good precedent will have a reward like that of everyone who follows it until the Day of Resurrection, and the one who sets a bad precedent will have a burden of sin like that of everyone who follows it until the Day of Resurrection. The one who calls others to right guidance will have a reward like that of those who follow it, and the one who calls others to misguidance will have a burden of sin like that of those who follow it, whether this guidance or misguidance is something that he initiated or it was started before him, and whether that is by teaching knowledge, acts of worship, etiquette or anything else”[12].

This is important to consider, because long after you have logged off of your computer, deleted your social network account, changed your profile, or in some way shielded your identity, your actions are still spreading and having consequences. This can continue long after your soul has left your body and you are in your grave. It is common that people post and say things that they give no second thought to, and it will turn out that those statements and posts will result in their being thrown into the hell-fire. In the hadith of Abu Hurraira, the Prophet (SAWS) said: “A slave of Allah might say something which pleases Allah Almighty without realizing it on account of which Allah raises him some degrees. A slave of Allah might say something which angers Allah Almighty without realizing it on account of which he falls into Jahannam.[13]

Major infractions we commit on Facebook

Spreading marital secrets.

 The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Verily among the worst people before Allâh on the Day of Judgment is a man who approaches his wife sexually and she responds and then he spreads her secrets.”[1] This is when either a husband or a wife, and sometimes boyfriend and girlfriend pretending to be married, discloses about their personal bedroom manners. This is prohibited behavior in Islam and has terrible spiritual consequences, and places people amongst the worst people on the Day of Judgment.


[1] Collected by Muslim, Ibn Abi Shayba, and others.

Heretical statements or sentiments

Another common problem that we see are when people make statements, or take positions that are tantamount to kufr (heresy); such as when people openly reject verses of the Quran, or authentic  hadith of the Prophet (SAWS) without any ta’weel [acceptable interpretation] . A person may state on facebook or another social network like YouTube, twitter or instagram and say, I believe such and such a thing, or so and so is correct when they say such and such a thing, all the while, the statement that they make or say they believe in is a statement of unbelief. Kufr, does not cease to be kufr, just because it’s on the internet.

Speaking without knowledge

Allah sub’haanahu wa ta’ala makes it clear; وَلاَ تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولـئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُولاً   [“And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).”][15]  Too often, people make claims about religious matters without having any knowledge. It is common that people make their own tafseer of the Quran, or ignore agreed upon positions of Islamic scholarship, many times, committing heresy in the process. The Prophet said: “Whoever speaks about the Quran without knowledge, then let him have his seat in Hellfire.” [Tirmithi]. Making capricious statements about Quranic verses is a cardinal sin. Even if the person happens to be correct, the fact alone that he or she takes such liberties as to freely interpret the sacred word of the Almighty God Allah, after it had been sent down from seven heavens, delivered by the archangel Jib’reel to the Prophet (SAWS) and preserved in the hearts of men is enough to warrant condemnation.  “The Prophet said: ”He who speaks about the Quran on the basis of his own opinion, he commits an error even if he is right”. [Tirmithi and Dawood]

Disclosing the faults of others

This has become rampant on face book and other social media. Many Muslims have followed the path of tabloid television and spend an inordinate amount of time in trying to disclose the faults of others; such behavior leads to punishment in this life and in the hereafter;
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

“Those who love to see scandal published (and) broadcast among the Believers will have a grievous Penalty in this life and in the Hereafter: Allah knows and ye know not”[16] (Quran, 19-24) The first principle to follow on this matter is to cover up your brother’s faults and resist scandal, based upon the hadith of the Prophet (SAWS) “Whosoever covers (the sins of) a Muslim, Allah covers (his sins) on the Day of Judgment”.

Backbiting and Slander

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: And spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it…But fear Allah. For Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful”.[17]

Backbiting is the most heinous of sins, and bears grave consequences. The Prophet (SAWS) was reported to have said: “Allah may forgive a person if he repents after committing adultery. However, Allah will not forgive the one who backbites, till his victim forgives him.”[18]

Dear beloveds, let’s be mindful of what we post or comment on the internet because bad words, bad adab, profanity, personal attacks, false accusations, lewdness, and misinformation about the religion, has its consequences. Hiding behind online anonymity may work for some people to conceal their real identities from the public, but it doesn’t work with Allah; “And every human being’s destiny have We tied to his neck; and on the Day of Resurrection We shall bring forth for him a record which he will find wide open, and he will be told:] “Read this thy record,! Sufficient is thine own self today to make out thine account!” 17:13-14 Quran. Remember to think before you post, like or comment. And Allah knows best.

Shaykh Luqman Ahmad

Shaykh Luqman is the weekly Imam/Khateeb at the Islamic Society of Folsom in Northern California  and Executive Director of the Lotus Tree Institute, an American Muslim Think Tank based in California; he can be reached at imamabulaith@yahoo.com.


[1] Collected by Bukhaari

[2] Quran, 49:13

[3] Jaami’ Uloom wal Hikam, By Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, p. 248.

[4] Collected by Bukhaari.

[5] Quran, 13:10

[6] Quran, 99:7-8

[7] Quran, 50:18

[8] Quran, 6:160

[9] Collected by Imam Ahmad, and Abu Eesa at-Tirmithee.

[10] Collected by Muslim

[11] Collected by Muslim

[12] Sharhu Muslim 16/227-227

[13] Collected by Bukhaari

[14] Collected by Muslim, Ibn Abi Shayba, and others.

[15] Quran, 17:36

[16] Quran, 24:19

[17] Quran, 49:12

[18] Collected by al-Bayhaqi

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